Digital photography is still new enough that most of us have yet to form an opinion about it, much less (1) a point of view. But this hasn’t stopped many film and computer fans from agreeing (2) the early (3) wisdom about digital cameras—they’re neat (4) for your PC, but they’re not suit able for everyday picture-taking.
The fans are wrong: more than anything else, digital cameras are radically (5) what photography means and what it can be. The venerable medium of photography as we know (6) is beginning to seem out of (7) with the way we live. In our computer and camcorder culture, saving pictures (8) digital files and watching them on TV is no less (9) and in many ways more (10) than fumbling with rolls of film that must be sent off to be (11) .
Paper is also terribly (12) Pictures that are incorrectly framed, focused, or lighted are nonetheless (13) to film and ultimately processed into prints.
The digital medium changes the (14) . Still images that are (15) digitally can immediately be shown on a computer monitor, TV screen, or a small liquid-crystal display (LCD) built right into the camera. And since the points of light that (16) an image are saved as a series of digital bits in (17) memory, (18) being permanently etched onto film, they can be erased, retouched, and transmitted on-line.
What’s it like to (19) with one of these digital cameras It’s a little like a first date—exciting, confusing and fraught with (20) .
The question of whether war is inevitable is one, which has concerned many of the world’s great writers. Before considering this question, it will be useful to introduce some related concepts. Conflict, defined as opposition among social entities directed against one another, is distinguished from competition, defined as opposition among social entities independently striving for something, which is in inadequate aupply. Competitors may not be aware of one another, while the parties to a conflict are. Conflict and competition are both categories of opposition, which has been defined as a process by which social entities function is the disservice of one another.
Opposition is thus contrasted with cooperation, the process by which social entities function in the service of one another. These definitions are necessary because it is important to emphasize that competition between individuals or groups in inevitable in a world of limited resources, but conflict is not. Conflict, nevertheless, is very likely to occur, and is probably an essential and desirable element of human societies.
Many authors have argued for the inevitability of war from the premise that in the struggle for existence among animal species, 0nly the fittest survive. In general, however, this struggle in nature is competition, not conflict. Social animals, such as monkeys and cattle, fight to win or maintain leadership of the group. The struggle for existence occurs not in such fights, but in the competition for limited feeding areas and for occupancy of areas free from meat-eating animals. Those who fail in this competition starve to death or become victims to other species. This struggle for existence does not resemble human war, but rather the competition of individuals for jobs, markets, and materials. The essence of the struggle is the competition for the necessities of life that are insufficient to satisfy all.
Among nations there is competition in developing resources, trades, skills, and a satisfactory way of life. The successful nations grow and prosper; the unsuccessful decline. While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, it cannot be said that war-like conflict among nations is inevitable, although competition is.
A. it results in war in most cases
B. it induces efforts to expand territory
C. it is a kind of opposition among social entities
D. it is essentially a struggle for existence
Part B How does your reading proceed Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your implicit knowledge of English grammar. (41)_____________________________________You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance by making decisions about what kind of speech event is involved: who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where. The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and clues; (42)_________________________________ Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or ‘true’ meaning that can be read off and checked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of the text to the world. (43)_________________________________________ Such background material inevitably reflects who we are. (44)____________________________ This doesn’t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods. Place and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page—including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns—debates about texts can play an important in the social discussion of beliefs and values. How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45) _________________________________________Such dimensions of reading suggest — as other introduced later in the book will also do — that we bring an implicit（often unacknowledged）agenda to any act of reading. It doesn’t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced and more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different kinds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship to your surrounding textual environment.
A. Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfils the requirement of a give course Reading it simply for pleasure Skimming it for information Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room.
B. Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender, ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off others.
C. If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the ash emption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them.
D. In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meaning or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones author intended.
E. You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text may be significant to you, or about its validity — inferences that from the basis of personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible.
F. In plays, novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author’s own thoughts.
G. Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organization or pattering we perceive in a text’s formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text.